This work has been supported by National Science Foundation grant #9817629 to Ivy Doak and Timothy Montler. National Science Foundation dissertaion grant #9014700 to Ivy Doak provided support for the basic research underlying the analyses presented here. Other funding has come from the Phillips Fund of the American Philosophical Society and the Jacobs Funds of the Whatcom Museum.


We are deeply grateful to the Coeur d'Alene elders who have shared their knowledge with us: Felix Aripa, Lavinia Felsman, Don George†, Blanche LaSarte†, Marie Irene Lowley, Lawrence Nicodemus†, Anne Antelope Samuels†, Margaret Stensgar†.


We also thank other members of the Coeur d'Alene tribe and tribal staff for their help over the years, especially Lawrence Aripa†, Raymond Brinkman, Kim Matheson, and Richard Mullen†. Our UNT student research assistant, Andrea Duncan, provided essential help in checking the facsimile version against Reichard's original.


Special thanks go to Anthony Mattina at the University of Montana, who introduced us to Salishan linguistics, Reichard's texts, etc.



Ivy Doak
Timothy Montler